Relationship Between Architecture and Landscape
Schumacher, Thomes L. “The Outside is the Result of an Inside.” Journal of Architectural Education, 2002 Sept., V. 56, No. 1, pp. 23-33.
This article discusses the style of architectural design in which the creation of interior space defines the outer space. The article begins by quoting Le Corbusier’s maxim: “The outside is a result of an inside.” The definition of the outer space is both in form, expressing the program occurring within, as well as in space, where the space of the interior defines the space of the exterior. The article talks about the importance of program essentially stating that architecture should be honest about what occurs behind the façade, and not display volumes, which contradict the programming on the interior. Despite different variations among architects about what programming is chosen to be projected on the façade of a building there is no doubting that everyone agrees that the exterior façade does not define what occurs on the interior, but the interior defines what happens on the façade. It also talks about being truthful in the sense that a building will convey what it is on the exterior: in this way a courthouse will be clearly identifiable as one, and not appear as something that it is not.
Beardsley, John. Earthworks and Beyond: Contemporary Art in the Landscape. (New York: Abbeville Press Publishers, 2006)
Beardsley’s text interprets many pieces of “earthworks” or “land art” it also looks at the improving public spaces through these types of interventions. He distinguishes earthworks from other more portable works of sculpture. He states that earthworks are strictly tied with the landscape they are placed. A large part of their content relies on their relationship with specific characteristics of their surroundings. The text assumes several assumptions: first that a person’s relationship to landscape is one of the most significant expressions of culture, second that the entire history of form building in the landscape is the foundation for contemporary work, thirdly that in the last several decades the distinctions between sculpture and other forms of artistic activity have blurred, and finally that Americans are afflicted with a profound ambivalence toward nature due to the impulse to exploit nature and the urge to protect what little of the natural world is left. Beardsley looks at many examples of earthworks from the natural landscape to the urban landscape.
Heidegger, Martin. “Building Dwelling Thinking”. Poetry, Language, Thought. (New York: Harper Colophon Books, 1971)
In his exploration toward answering the way in which building belongs to dwelling Heidegger uses the bridge as an example: “The bridge swings over the stream with case and power. It does not just connect banks that are already there. The banks emerge as banks only as the bridge crosses the stream.” The way in which architecture is inherently linked with the landscape, and the impact it has on defining it is intriguing. It is an interest in the sensible impact (not to say that it is necessarily an interest in an ephemeral design) on the landscape that the intervention makes that evokes my own interest. Heidegger also uses the bridge to talk about the creation of space versus the creation of place, though he calls it location. He states that the space is not place before the bridge sits there. “Before the bridge stands, there are of course many spots along the stream that can be occupied by something. One of them proves to be a location, and does so because of the bridge.”
Pollak, Linda and Berrizbeitia, Anita. Inside/Outside: Between Architecture and Landscape. (Massachusetts: Rockport Publishers, 1999)
Inside/Outside offers a discussion of several design projects, which embody a relationship between architecture and landscape. Through these precedents Pollak and Berrizbeitia examine five operations that characterize each work. Each operation (reciprocity, materiality, threshold, insertion, and infrastructure) articulates a conceptual approach to relations between architecture and landscape. Reciprocity aims to subvert the predominant view of landscape as only the ground on which architecture rests. The operation of materiality critiques the tradition of landscape and architecture in purely visual terms. Threshold rejects the reduction of transition from space to space to merely that of an abrupt crossing. Instead threshold is understood as a place of becoming. Insertion aims to draw connections between a space and its surroundings. The operation of infrastructure places architecture and landscape as a place where natural or true ground no longer exists.