Bibliographic Essay [Outline] Revision


  • Functionalism of the modern movement – leading factor in the dissolution of meaning in architecture and landscape design
    • Hannes Meyer: “everything in this world is a product of the formula [function times economy]; all art is composition and therefore unfunctional; all life is function and therefore unartistic”
    • Corbusier, Mies van der Rohe, and Frank Lloyd Wright – attention to landscape is basic/schematic
      • Any interest in the landscape is biased towards the natural landscape [disregard for designed landscape]


  • Architecture should foster the creation of meaning
    • Christian Norberg-Schulz: “It must be emphasized that existential meanings are inherent in daily life, consisting of the relationships between natural and human properties, processes and actions. But, if meanings are inherent in daily life, why do we have to worry about ‘making life meaningful?’ Firstly, it is necessary to become sensitive to meanings; the faculty of perception has to be developed to allow for an adequate ‘intentional depth.’ Secondly, meanings have to be made clearly manifest to make a socially valid perception possible. Hence the importance of symbolism.”
    • Importance of symbolism to meaning and to man in general [Schulz]
    • Marc Trieb – what is a designer’s role in bringing meaning to a place?
      • “I do believe that we can cirumcscribe the range of possible reactions to a designed place. We cannot make the place mean, but we can, I hope, instigate reactions to the place that will fall within the desired confines of happiness, gloom, joy, contemplation, or delight… It would seem that a designer could create a landscape of pleasure that in itself would become significant.”
  • John Dixon Hunt offers the counterpoint to Trieb in his belief that the designer has the ability to bring meaning to a place
    • Hunt on the English landscape garden: “like many garden traditions before it, was a coherent system of signs devised to be legible to both makes and visitor.”
    • Hunt’s discussion of genius loci and the role of intuition on the designers part
      • The Woodland Cemetery by Lewerentz and Asplund – captures the idea of genius loci and blends architecture and landscape design [creates several cultural symbols]
  • Laurie Olin – defines two categories of meaning in landscapes
    • Natural or evolutionary
    • Synthetic or invented
  • Marc Trieb classifies five different approaches to landscape design
    • Neoarchaic
    • Genius of the place
    • The Zeitgeist
    • Vernacular landscape
    • Didactic approach [one of teaching]


  • Importance of symbolic relationships in architecture and the landscape – part of man’s daily life 

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